The First Penn-KIST Joint Symposium Abstracts

For the The First Penn-KIST Joint Symposium


Nader Engheta
Electrical and Systems Engineering
University of Pennsylvania

Abstract. Recent development in nanotechnology, nanoscience and materials science and engineering has provided opportunities to construct structures with unprecedented attributes and characteristics in manipulating waves and fields.  We are exploring light-matter interaction in platforms with extreme scenarios, such as near-zero relative permittivity and near-zero relative permeability, and with extreme features such as very high phase velocity, very low energy velocity, nonreciprocal vortices at the nanoscale, giant anisotropy and nonlinearity, “near-zero” photonics, nanoscale computation with optical nanocircuits, and more.  Such “metaphotonic platforms” provide us with exciting features and functionalities for wave-based paradigms such as low-index optics, acoustics and thermodynamics.  I will discuss some of our ongoing work in these areas, will present some of the opportunities and challenges, and will forecast some future directions and possibilities.

Nader EnghetaNader Engheta is the H. Nedwill Ramsey Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, with affiliations in the Departments of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Physics and Astronomy, and Bioengineering.  He received his B.S. degree from the University of Tehran, and his M.S and Ph.D. degrees from Caltech.  He has received several awards for his research including the honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Stuttgart, Germany and the Aalto University, Finland in 2016, the 2015 Gold Medal from SPIE, the 2015 Fellow of US National Academy of Inventors (NAI), the 2015 National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellow (NSSEFF) Award (also known as Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellow Award) from US Department of Defense, the 2015 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society Distinguished Achievement Award, the 2014 Balthasar van der Pol Gold Medal from the International Union of Radio Science (URSI), the 2013 Inaugural SINA Award in Engineering, the 2012 IEEE Electromagnetics Award, 2006 Scientific American Magazine 50 Leaders in Science and Technology, the Guggenheim Fellowship, and the IEEE Third Millennium Medal.  He is a Fellow of six international scientific and technical societies, i.e., IEEE, OSA, APS, MRS, SPIE, and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

His current research activities span a broad range of areas including nanophotonics, metamaterials, nano-scale optics, graphene optics, imaging and sensing inspired by eyes of animal species, optical nanoengineering, microwave and optical antennas, and physics and engineering of fields and waves.  He has co-edited (with R. W. Ziolkowski) the book entitled “Metamaterials:  Physics and Engineering Explorations” by Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006.  He was the Chair of the Gordon Research Conference on Plasmonics in June 2012.


Nanostructured Plasmonic Platforms for Dramatically Enhanced Upconversion Luminescence and Its Applications

Seok Joon Kwon
Nanophotonics Research Center
Korea Institute of Science & Technology

Abstract. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have recently been explored for near-infrared (NIR) sensing and imaging devices. However, the fundamental limit in the use of the UCNPs due to low quantum efficiency has been a challenge in practical applications. We integrated a disordered array of metal NPs and nanowires (NRs) with the UCNPs-embedded insulator on a metal film to obtain ultra-strong NIR-to-visible upconversion luminescence (UCL). The platform exhibited distinctive improvements in confining NIR, extracting visible light, and boosting the plasmonic effects for the upconversion. Consequently, 3-order enhanced UCL intensity relative to the reference at low NIR excitation was achieved. The enhanced UCL was not only unprecedented but substantially greater than the platforms with periodic arrays of metal NPs. Taking advantage of the ultra-strong UCL, a photodetector was fabricated, which exhibited competitive NIR-detecting performances to the reference. We also extended the enhanced UCL to fabricate non-duplicable anti-counterfeit devices working at NIR. The designed platform could provide a cost-effective approach for the practical applications of UCNPs for NIR detecting or imaging and other areas.

Seok Joon KwonSeok Joon Kwon is a Senior Research Scientist in the Nanophotonics Research Center at Korea Institute of Science & Technology (KIST). He is working on mathematical & computational study on nano-scale photonics systems for harnessing enhanced luminescence, photovoltaic performances, optoelectronic properties, and photodetectors. In his research area are also involved such as self-assembly/organization of nanomaterials, graph theory/modeling, systems biology, social dynamics, etc. Dr. Kwon received his BS & MS degrees in chemical & biological engineering from Seoul National University in 2002 & 2004 respectively, with minor in Physics. He received his doctoral degree in chemical engineering with minor in materials science & engineering from MIT under advising of Prof. T. Alan Hatton in 2013. He has worked at KIST since 2013 concentrating on fundamental and applicative studies on photonics at nanoscale.


Four Billion Times around the Sun: Biophotonics and the Evolution of Optical Soft Matter

Alison Sweeney
Department of Physics and Astronomy
University of Pennsylvania

Abstract. Molluscan animals such as squids, octopuses and clams build an array of living optical devices of astounding optical/photonic sophistication and complexity, such as structural camouflaging coatings, graded index lenses, solar radiance distributors, and wavelength-specific light guides. Unlike the iridescent structures in fish, butterflies and birds, the “iridocytes” in molluscs are formed from still-living cells, with the high-index portions generated by dense assemblies of protein in the active cytoplasm. These optically resonant cells seem to be allowed more structural diversity than the systems evolved in other taxa, and have resulted in solutions to a wider array of evolutionary optical problems than in any other animal group, including underwater vision, emissive camouflage, reflective camouflage, and distribution of light for efficient photosynthesis. Several new observations about reflectin and S-crystalline proteins from squids show that the soft matter physics construct of “patchy colloids” is probably the most informative paradigm for understanding the assembly of these living photonic systems. This talk will discuss our recent discoveries of optical function and self-assembly in squid vision, squid camouflage, and “solar transformers” in giant clams.

Alison SweeneyAlison Sweeney is an assistant professor in the department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania. She followed an unusual route to this position – her undergraduate majors were biology and Russian language, and her Ph.D. was awarded by Duke University’s department of zoology. She identifies novel systems in which biological evolution has produced novel soft and optical materials with sophisticated properties that are unlikely to arise from the top-down design efforts of human engineers.  Her group works to elucidate the optical function of these systems, and the principles underlying their self-assembly. This approach has led her to discovering area-efficient photosynthesis for biofuels in giant clams, and to self-assembling complex lenses in squids.  She has been recognized for her work by a Bartholomew Award from the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, a Sloan Fellowship, and a Packard Foundation Fellowship.


The design of multifunctional nanomaterials through nanocrystal self-assembly

Christopher B. Murray
Departments of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering
University of Pennsylvania

 Abstract. The synthesis of monodisperse colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled composition, size and shape and surface functionalization now yeld ideal building blocks for the assembly of new thin films and devices. Monodisperse colloidal NCs are in a sense “artificial atoms” with tunable electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties, and they are allowing the development of a new periodic table with which we can design materials and devices at the Mesoscale.  In this talk, I will briefly outline the current state of the art in synthesis, purification, and integration of size and shape controlled single phase NCs as well as  core-shell and herterodimer particles (heterostructures). I will emphasize the role of chemical tailoring of NC shape and ligand structure in programming the assembly of NC thin films and 3D supercrystals. These NCs can be induced to assemble into single-component, binary, and even ternary NC superlattices providing a scalable route to the production of multi-functional thin films.  The power of NC hetero-integration I will be illustrated by progress in the co-assembly of  plasmonic resonators and nanoscale emitters to fabricate MetaMaterials with novel linear and non-linear optical properties.  The modular assembly of these NCs allows the desirable features of their underlying quantum character to be retained, or even enhanced as the interactions between the NCs drive the emergence of new delocalized properties.   Semiconductor NCs (Quantum Dots) solids that exhibit strong electronic, optical coupling will be emphasized.

Christopher B. MurrayChristopher B. Murray holds the Richard Perry University Professorship in Chemistry and Materials Science at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA, where his research focuses on the preparation, characterization and integration of nanomaterials.  Prior to joining Penn, Chris was a Staff Scientist and Manager in the IBM’s Research Division from 1995 to 2006 where he led the “Nanoscale Materials & Devices” Department at the T. J. Watson Research Center.  Chis received his BSc. degree with Honors in Chemistry from St. Mary’s University in Halifax Nova Scotia Canada (1988) and spent a year as a Rotary International Fellow at the University of Auckland, New Zealand studying Chemistry and Materials Science before pursuing his PhD. in Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  While at MIT Chris worked under the supervision of Prof. Moungi G. Bawendi focusing on the synthesis and characterization of semiconductor quantum dots and quantum dot solids, completing his PhD. in 1995. The American Chemical Society recognized the pioneering contributions in Chris’ graduate thesis with the Nobel Laureate Signature Award.  Chris continues champion the development of materials chemistry by bringing together colloidal synthesis and nanoscale materials chemistry and with aspects of traditional top-down patterning and processing. He has expanded beyond semiconductors to explore opportunities in nanomagnetics, plasmonics and catalysis. Increasingly his research is focused on the application of nanotechnology and materials design to issues that impact information technology, energy and environmental sustainability and human health.  Chris has authored more than 220 scholarly articles, holds over 25 patents, and has presented over 250 public lectures in the field of nanocrystal synthesis and self-assembly and on the engineering of nanomaterials and nanodevices.  In 2011 he received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands recognizing his contributions to the design of nanomaterials for energy sustainability, and in 2012 Chris was recognized as a Fellow of the Materials Research Society. Chris also contributes to the broader scientific community in nanoscience and engineering by serving on numerous advisory boards for national and international scientific centers, journals, conferences and professional organizations.


Synthesis of ZnO-nanocarbons hybrid quantum dots and their applications

Won-Kook Choi
Director, Materials and Life Science Research Division
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract. Consolidated ZnO-nanocarbons (graphene and C60) core-shell type hybrid quantum dots were synthesized via the chemical reaction between ZnO embryo nanoparticle and acid-treated graphene/C60. This emissive hybrid quantum dots were used for the realization of white-light-emitting ZnO-graphene quantum dots (ZGQDs) LED. In time-resolved photoluminescence study, it was revealed that the excited electrons by absorption of UV from valence band to conduction band in ZnO inner QDs were quickly transferred to the adjacent similar energy level of graphene outer shells and formed charge transfer excitons with the holes remained in the valence band. These excitons are recombined and emitted new blue emission. Based on ZnO-graphene hybrid QDs, flexible white-light-emitting diode with 10×10 passive matrix was successfully fabricated for planar lighting. Moreover, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell test for water oxidation and conventional degradation test using organic dyes showed that the PEC activities could be significantly improved. At 1.23V (vs. RHE) in pH6.9 electrolyte, photocurrent density was enhanced by 6 times for ZnO-C60 photoanodes with conformal coating of C60 (0.235 mA/cm2). Sepecifically, the strong Zn-O-C bond structures on the ZnO surface prevented photoinduced holes from being consumed by the photocorrosion reaction of ZnO, thereby improving long-term stability.

Won-Kook ChoiWon-Kook Choi received his Ph.D. degree in Physics from Yonsei University, Korea in 1993. He then joined University of Oregon, USA and Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) as a post-doc fellow during 1993-1996. Since then he worked as a Senior and Principal Research Scientist at KIST. Now he is the Director of Materials and Life Science Research Division at KIST. His main research fields are solid surface phenomenon, plasma/ion beam surface modification, and semiconductor nanoelectronics related to II-VI semiconductor, quantum dot, and van der Waals 2D materials.


Universal Kirigami

Randall D. Kamien
Department of Physics and Astronomy
University of Pennsylvania

Abstract. Kirigami, the cousin of origami or종이 접기, allows cutting and joining of paper, in addition to folding. In this talk I will describe our algorithm to create arbitrarily complex targets where the resolution of the underlying cuts and folds is at the same lengthscale as the resolution of target.

Randall D. KamienRandall D. Kamien received his Ph.D. in Physics from Harvard University in 1992.  From 1992-1995 he was a Member in the School of Natural Sciences at the Institute for Advanced Study.  He was hired as a postdoc at Penn in 1995 and has stayed there since where he is now the Vicki and William Abrams Professor in the Natural Sciences.  He uses geometry and topology to study the organization of soft materials. He is currently a Simons Investigator in Theoretical Physics.


Design and Development of Advanced Structure Materials

In-Suk Choi
High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract. Developing reliable and robust flexible/stretchable structural materials is core to realize the ultimate full flexible/stretchable devices and deployable structures. Besides alloying and microstructural modification of materials, we introduced simple design concepts that significantly enhance flexibility and stretchability of structural materials. Geometrical design (a field influenced by differential geometry, fractal geometry and cellular automata) provides us many examples of the formation of delicate and, detailed patterns leading to the effective distribution of stresses. Instead of process control and complex structure design, the simple juxtaposition of unit design can lead to simple, cheap and easily processed flexible, stretchable and deployable structures. In addition, newly developed computational approach expands our design dimension to the next level. We believe that geometrical modulation by controlled size, shape, and symmetry adds another dimension unleashing the limitation of conventional design space of structure materials.

In-Suk ChoiIn-Suk Choi is a Principal Research Scientist in the High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center at Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST). He earned his BS degree from Seoul National University, MS degree from Stanford University and Ph.D. degree from MIT in Materials Science and Engineering. He conducted his postdoctoral research at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany before joining the KIST in 2009. He received a young leader technical award from Korea Institute of Metals and Materials in 2013. He is currently serving as editorial board members in several domestic and international journals. At present, his work focuses on developing advanced materials and structures in extreme condition.


Bioinspired, Hierarchical Metamaterials

Shu Yang
Department of Materials Science & Engineering
University of Pennsylvania

Abstract. Bio-organisms with exquisite array of hierarchical organization with multiscale structures provides us fascinating examples with remarkable optical, mechanical, and surface effects such as butterfly wings with dazzling iridescence yet water repellent and Cephalopod skins that undergo dynamic underwater camouflage. Taking the cues from nature, the Yang lab combines nano- and microstructures fabricated by top-down fabrication and bottom-up nanoassembly to develop new suites of responsive and hybrid materials that are energy efficient, light-weight but strong, and responsive to environmental settings (light, heat and moisture). In my talk, I will illustrate several specific examples of hierarchical metamterials, including giant claim inspired highly efficient solar transformers for photosynthesis, desert beetle scale inspired hygroscopic metamorphic 4D pleats for water harvesting, and textile based energy storage.

Shu YangShu Yang is a Professor in the Departments of Materials Science & Engineering, and Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at University of Pennsylvania, and Director of Center for Analyzing Evolved Structures as Optimized Products (AESOP): Science and Engineering for the Human Habitat. Her group is interested in synthesis, fabrication and assembly of polymers, liquid crystals, and colloids with precisely controlled size, shape, and geometry; investigating the dynamic tuning of their sizes and structures, and the resulting unique optical, mechanical and surface/interface properties. Yang received her BS degree from Fudan University, China in 1992, and Ph. D. degree from Chemistry and Chemical Biology while researching in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Cornell University in 1999. She worked at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies as a Member of Technical Staff before joining Penn in 2004. She received George H. Heilmeier Faculty Award for Excellence in Research from Penn Engineering (2015-2016). She is elected as Fellow of National Academy of Inventors (2014) and TR100 as one of the world’s top 100 young innovators under age of 35 by MIT’s Technology Review (2004). She was a recipient of ICI (1999) and Unilever (2001) student awards from American Chemical Society (ACS) for outstanding research in polymer science and engineering.


Insight into Impurity Doping in Metal Oxides from Atomistic Simulations

Seungchul Kim
Computational Science Research Center
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract. Impurity doping into the semiconductor is widely used in various fields, such as photocatalysts, dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) and phosphors, to achieve the desired property of the material. However, it is very difficult to figure out local structure and electronic properties of dopants, and their dependency on experimental conditions. Atomistic simulations using density functional theory (DFT) are the appropriate method connecting macroscopic conditions of synthesis and material’s properties: the simulations can predict local structure and electronic properties of dopants at given thermodynamic conditions, and suggest the experimental conditions that suppress undesired dopant structures or induce desired ones. This talk is going to present simulation-experiment collaborations that the simulations successfully guided experiments of Y2O3 phosphor and TiO2 photocatalyst.

Seungchul KimSeungchul Kim is a Senior Research Scientist in the Computational Science Research Center (CSC) at Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), and associate professor in Department of Nanomaterials Science and Engineering at Korea University of Science and Technology (UST). His team conducts researches on structural and electronic properties of condensed matters using density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations; graphene related structures, Schottky barrier, anode materials of lithium ion batteries, heterogeneous catalysts, and impurity doping in transition metal oxides. He is leading the project of developing simulation platform of electrochemistry. Dr. Kim received his BS degree from University of Seoul, Korea in 2002, and Ph. D. degree from Seoul National University in 2009. He was a postdoc in the Department of Chemistry at Penn from 2009 to 2012, then joined KIST in 2012.


2D Materials/Polymer Nanocomposites for EMI Shielding Applications

Chong Min Koo
Materials Architecturing Research Center
Materials and Life Science Research Division
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding have been attracted much attention for a wide range of applications in the modern high-power electronics, portable devices, and self-driving cars, as the highly integrated and high-speed wireless communication devices suffer from undesirable electromagnetic interference effect that not only deteriorates the performance of the devices but also brings serious concern on harmful health problem to human. For an EMI shielding material to be effective it should have high electrical conductivity. Until now, metal shrouds were the material of choice to combat EMI pollution. However, metal fillers add additional weight and with susceptibility to corrosion making them less desirable. As a result, lightweight, low-cost, high strength and easily fabricated shielding materials are desired. In this presentation, I would like to briefly demonstrate that sulfur-doped graphenes and transition metal carbides (MXenes) can be considered as the best candidates for EMI shielding materials. Sulfur-doping on graphene induces strong n-doping effect that gives rise to the strong improvement in electrical conductivity. MXenes are a family of two dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and nitrides, with a formula of Mn+1XnTx, where M is an early transition metal (e.g. Ti, Zr, V, Nb, Ta and Mo), X is carbon and/or nitrogen, T is surface functional groups such as (–OH, =O and –F). This combination gives MXenes exceptional electrical conductivity. The large electrical conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes and transition metal carbides (MXenes) is responsible for the exceptional EMI SE performance.

Chong Min KooChong Min Koo is a Principal Research Scientist in the Materials Architecturing Research Center at Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) since 2007. He also serves as a professor in the Nanomaterials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology. His group is interested in nanostructured polymers, nanomaterials and polymer nanocomposites for EMI shielding, thermal conduction, actuators and energy storage device applications. He received his MS (1999) and PhD (2003) degrees from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), in Daejeon, Republic of Korea. He has postdoctoral experience (∼2005) at the University of Minnesota (USA). He then worked as a senior research scientist (∼2007) at LG Chemicals, in Daejeon, Republic Korea. He was also a visiting scientist (2011, 2003) at the Penn State University (USA). He received LG Chemical Best Research Award (2007), LG Group Best Research and Development Award (2007), KIST Unsung Hero Award (2012), KIST Best Research Team Award (2015).


Bicontinuous Biphasic Liquid Media for Catalysis and Separations

Daeyeon Lee
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
University of Pennsylvania

 Abstract. A recent approach that has shown great promise for biomass conversion and biofuel upgrade reaction involves using biphasic emulsions stabilized with interfacially active catalytic nanoparticles. This novel methodology combines the advantages of phase transfer and heterogeneous catalysis.  One drawback that limits the widespread utilization of this approach, however, is that catalyzed reaction and separation cannot be performed in a continuous mode.  To enable continuous reactions and separations in a biphasic liquid mixture, we explore the formation of bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsions (Bijels). Bijels are typically prepared by arresting spinodal decomposition of two fluid phases via interfacial attachment and jamming of colloidal particles. Their fabrication is currently limited to a few pairs of immiscible liquids, and bicontinuous morphology can be obtained within narrow composition and temperature windows, potentially limiting their use in reactions involving a specific combination of reaction/separation media, catalytic nanoparticles and reaction temperature. We explore the formation of bijels by solvent transfer-induced phase separation (STRIP) of ternary mixtures. The use of commercially available silica nanoparticles and ionic surfactants allows us to continuously form bijel fibers with controllable morphologies and domain sizes down to a few hundreds of nanometers. We study the dependence of fiber morphology on different control parameters such as particle and surfactant concentrations. We also develop a new in situ technique to characterize the mechanical properties of bijel fibers during different stages of their maturation. The potential of generating bijels that can be used in reactive separations for biofuel upgrade will be discussed.

Daeyeon LeeDaeyeon Lee is Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. Daeyeon received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Seoul National University in 2001 and received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering/Program in Polymer Science and Technology at MIT in 2007 co-supervised by Robert E. Cohen and Michael F. Rubner.  After his Ph.D., Daeyeon was a postdoctoral fellow in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard University where he worked with David A. Weitz.  Daeyeon joined the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in 2009.  Daeyeon has won numerous awards and recognitions including the 2010 Victor K. LaMer Award from ACS Colloid and Surface Chemistry Division, the NSF CAREER Award (2011), the 2011 Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association Young Investigator Award, the 2012 KIChE President Young Investigator Award, the 2013 3M Nontenured Faculty Award, the 2013 AIChE NSEF Young Investigator Award and the 2014 Unilever Young Investigator Award for Outstanding Young Investigator in Colloid and Surfactant Science.


Block Copolymer Derived Metamaterials

Kahyun Hur
Center for Computational Science
Korea Institute of Science and Technology

Abstract. Structure-directing functional materials at the nanoscale through bottom up type block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly attracts significant current scientific interest due to their potential impact on the engineering of new metamaterials. Metamaterials offer new functionalities such as super-resolution imaging, cloaking, and thermal control. In order to efficiently develop novel metamaterials, predictive theoretical studies that explore the associated vast space of material parameters are highly desirable but are often lacking. In this talk, I will discuss that theoretical approaches can guide the development of BCP derived metamaterials to overcome current limitations in metamaterials fabrication. The topics include metamaterials fabrication, optical metamaterials, and thermoelectrics.

Kahyun HurKahyun Hur is a Senior Research Scientist in the Computational Science Center at Korea Institute of Science and Technology. His primary research is focused on computer simulation and synthesis of nanostructured materials. His group is developing nanomaterials with unusual physical properties utilizing the first-principle calculation, molecular dynamics simulation, and finite-element methods as well as synthesizing the materials from bottom-up type self-assembly. He received his BS and MS degrees in Chemistry department at Seoul National University, South Korea, and Ph. D. degree in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Cornell University in 2012.